Mitochondrial myopathies are diseases that manifest from damaged or defective mitochondria. Mitochondria are cellular organelles tasked with producing energy needed for cells functioning. The manifestation of mitochondrial myopathies stems from the destruction of oxidative phosphorylation in cellular mitochondria. The authors surmise that mitochondrial myopathies stem directly from mitochondria inability to undergo phosphorylation to facilitate energy

The budding yeast, known by its scientific name as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, features as the most exploited microorganism in the field of biotechnology. In particular, the present microorganism plays a greater role in brewing beer. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) further features as a widely researched eukaryotic organism. As such, the microorganism has proven extremely beneficial in

Bioterrorism refers to the intentional dissemination of countless infection agents, including bacteria and viruses, to kill or sicken people, flora, and fauna. Bacillus anthracis is the most commonly used agent of biological attacks. Bacillus anthracis is a rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium that causes anthrax. The use of widespread pathogens, including B. anthracis, as biological weapons sparked

Escherichia coli, known shortly as E. coli, is a rod-shaped, facultative, Gram-negative bacterium. The present bacterium harbors the potential to thrive in environments that lack oxygen. Different strains of this bacterium naturally colonize animal and human gastrointestinal tracts without causing possible harm to their hosts. Over time, however, particular strains of these bacteria have managed